Tuesday, 22 February 2011

HEPIALIDAE.........Ghost Moth to Clearwings

Hepialoidea

Hepialidae


3.001…(BF15)

 Recorded at light throughout the area in small numbers between early June and late August. Cromwell Bottom is an excellent place to see this species.

Numbers attracted to MV light traps 1999 – 2009
Orange Swift
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009

0
10
4
12
2
0
2
1
3
1
6


3.002…(BF 17)
                      
Recorded at light traps throughout the area in good numbers  from early  May to early August.  Between  52 adults were recorded .(AZ)

3.003…(BF 18)
Map-winged Swift Hepialus fusconebulosa                                          
Recorded at light traps throughout the area from late May to mid   July .Large numbers can be seen close to the moors edge with 27 to light at Withens Clough car park on the 27th June 2009 they are often one of the first species to light at dusk..

3.004…(BF 16 )
 Areas of bracken in warm evening sunshine are worth chequeing in May/June for this species. Broadhead clough 1999,Copley woods 2000 , Cromwell Bottom and  8 + displaying and ‘in cop’ at Pickwood Scarr Norland and 2 at Jumble Hole Clough 2007(AC,PT,SW)..

3.005 …(BF 14)
 In 1909 six were seen in Hebden Bridge and was said to be sometimes abundant in grassland be never frequent at light or sugar. The sub species Var thulensis was said to have been recorded at Kebroyd in 1966.
 This species more recently is commonly attracted to light traps throughout the area in small numbers. The adults are best looked for at dusk on and around the 3rd week in June when large numbers can be observed 'hovering' over suitable grassland. White ghost like males can be seen as there pure white wings catch the moonlight.. 12 (7 males and 5 females) at Hedge top Lane, Northowram on the 23rd June 2003 and 10 males hovering near nettles June 10th 2006.  On the 20th June 2009, 1 male was seen in car headlights at Hedge Top lane Northowram on the following night 56(mostly males) were observed’ lekking’in the same field. A large lek of 278 were seen on the 22nd June 2009   with a ratio of 10 males to one female, at least 22 pairs were seen ‘in cop’. In 2010 the numbers peaked at 435 males on the 21st June .The largest count ever recored in Yorkshire at the time. (AC) The same night a light trap was running all night 100 yards away and attracted 2 males and 1 female. Whilest making a short film in 2010 it was noted that when bright lights were used most moths disappeared (AC, SC) the short film can be seen at
Following on from this short film the Dance of the Ghost moth was featured on the BBC prime time programme the One Show.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4uvXRpbQDA8

Ghost Moths at Hedge Top Lane June/July 2009 / 2010

Ghost Moth
June 21st

22nd
23rd
24th
26th
27th
28th
July 1st
6th
2009 
1
56
278
252
96
178
119
40
1
       2010
June16 
17
21
26
30
July 2
6



238
250
435
50
30
30
31














Zeuzerinae

50.002…(BF 161)

 A very local species in our area first recorded by Herbert Spencer who recorded 2 at Elland in 1924 one was crippled.

1 at Elland Park Wood 1971 (WM.Collinson)
1 recorded at light Park Road Elland 17th July 2001 after a heavy storm (PT)
1 at light at Brookfoot , Brighouse 23rd July  2008 and 7th, , 11th and  13th July 2009  (M &KS)
1 at Light Hipperholme was seen to be egg laying in July 2009(C.Sut)
1 at light Midgley July 2009 (NC& SC)

Sesiidae
Sesiinae

52.003…(BF 371)
                                
Reported in the Halifax area in 1883 (G.T.Porritt)
Collinson wrote that this species is well established in the trunks of mature sallows throughout the district in 1965 .No recent records of adults but 2 larvae found in felled tree trunks in 2013 and 2015. The larvae were taken to rear through but both were parisatised (BL)

52.007…(BF 381)
Collinson wrote ‘Larve and empty pupa cases are easily found 1965’.No recent records.It may well be worth a look for  these species in appropriate habitat .

52.013…(BF 373)
              
 Collinson wrote ‘very few records of  Currant  Clearwing but it no doubt exists and can be found in the first week of July.
12 at Priestly Green organic food farm July 2005(PT)

5 at Skircoat Green Allotments on the 18th   /  19th June 2007 . Occurs annually here from 2007 onwards in very small numbers, in some years just one has been noted. Charlie Streets  said we took on the plot in 2006 and I made sure there were a few currant bushes around in the hope of attracting this species and lo and behold two years later I was getting one or two on my own patch. In February 2014 larvae were found in Redcurrant and bred through. (CS)

Butterflies


1526   Small Skipper  Thymelicus sylvestris (Poda)   
  The first record was in 1959 at the Cat- I’th- Well Wainstalls and Shibden it was then absent until 1984 when breeding was confirmed at Brighouse. It is now well established and can be seen on the wing from mid  July to late  August/early September .It can still be seen in good numbers near the Cat-I,th well and on the Castle carr road.
 
 Small Skipper colonies are found where grasses are allowed to grow tall. Typical habitats are unimproved rough grassland, verges, sunny rides, and woodland clearings the species is found where Yorkshire Fog (Holcus anatus) is common.

1531  Large Skipper Ochlodes venata(Ochsenheimer) 
 This species was first recorded by Roy Crossley in Elland in 1965 and has slowly spread throughout the area. It is now a common sight in June and July in many parts of Calderdale from the lower Calder valley up to the moor edges. Moselden , Northowram and Wainstalls are good places to see this species
 The Large Skipper  favours grassy areas, where foodplants grow  Cock’s foot(Dactylis glomerata), tall herbs, and grasses, for example woodland rides and clearings, pastures, roadside verges, hedgerows, and wet heathland. It is also a species of urban habitats, occurring in parks, churchyards, and other places with long grasses.

COLIDINAE

1543   Clouded Yellow  (Geoffroy)  Colias croceus
 This most beautiful migrant flying many hundreds of miles from Central and Southern Europe and North  Africa is occasionally seen in Calderdale.It has been recorded as breeding from Cromwell bottom and Halifax Town Centre (Now we have Saisburys on this site).
Collinson wrote  ‘It has been reported for our Parish only four times up to 1946. The first occasion had been very late in 1877 when, on October 20th, a famous collector Samuel Gibson reported one. It was duly recorded in the Halifax Courier.
During July 1949  I was going on holiday when, on looking over the Pye Nest allotments I was delighted to see the unmistakable bright yellow of this butterfly. On returning from holidays I learned that a further four had been seen and that Mr. Will Uttley of Hebden Bridge had actually caught one with his cap! I wrote to the Courier and this letter brought several replies. In all no less than 12 specimens were reported that summer which turned out to be the greatest Clouded Yellow year nationally that had ever been. All our specimens were of course males because the female is more concerned with seeking out the first clover-fields on reaching land and seldom reaches far north. However on October 10th a Sowerby Bridge schoolboy, Donald Hook, brought a butterfly in a matchbox and this turned out to be a female Clouded Yellow, the very first ever recorded for Halifax. I kept it several days in the hope of a few eggs but unfortunately none were forthcoming. So far as I am aware there have been no further visits by this delightful butterfly in the 20 years since then.’
  .In 1983 there were a few scattered records and in  1992 a large invasion between June and August with up to 20 individuals recorded throughout the area. It was recorded at Ringstone in 1996 when 2 individuals were observed on the 16th September  and 2 at Whiteholm in 2003 .1 In a Brighouse Garden on the 21st August 2006 are the most recent.This speices now overwinters in parts of southern England so records may increase in the next 50 years.

PIERIDAE

1546 Brimstone  ((Linnaeus)  Gonepteryx rhamni 
    
This nomadic butterfly occasionally wanders into our area in spring and summer as it searches for nectar,  Buddliea been favoured.. The foodplant is the two species of buckthorn, alder and purging (ramus catharticus, Frangula alnus), not native to our area, but it has been planted in several gardens the nearest area where the food plant grows is Pontefract and Castleford..The planting of the buckthorn species may increase this species chance of colonising our area.
Several reports from Clay House and Todmorden 1992
1 at Underbank ,Hebden Bridge 1995
1 at Savile Park on the 20th April 2004(AC)
1 at Sunnyside, Todmorden 2nd  Apr 2005 and 1on the  22nd Jul 2006    Joan Marshall
1 at  Brookfoot Loop on 18th May 2006 , BBC Springwatch walk. Spotted by Jonny from British Waterways. .
1 on the 6th June 2007 Park Road Elland. (PT)
1 at  Brookfoot Loop  28th  Mar and 1st April  2007.(AH)

1549
 Large White  ((Linnaeus)         Pieris brassicae
 Generally common and widespread throughout Calderdale .It can be seen on the wing from as early as May and seen throughout the summer till early September. The larvae feed on wild or cultivated species of the Cruciferae family, with a strong preference for cultivated varieties of Brassica oleracea such as Cabbage and Brussels-sprouts . Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) and Wild Mignonette (Reseda lutea) are also used.
 This is a strongly mobile and migrant species that may be encountered in any location, throughout Calderdale. Most adults are seen close to breeding areas, in gardens, allotments, and fields where brassica crops are grown.

 1550  Small White (Linnaeus)           Pieris rapae 
 Generally common and widespread throughout Calderdale it occurs in almost any habitat but is most plentiful in gardens and fields where brassica crops are grown especially cabbages, and Nasturtium (Tropaeoleum majus). They can be seen from early May till late September and have three broods in a good year.One day in July 2009 at least 50 were observed at
Elsewhere, it is found in smaller numbers especially in sheltered places such as hedgerows and  wood edges where wild crucifers occur.

1551 Green-veined White  (Linnaeus)    Pieris napi
 Generally common and widespread throughout Calderdale .Adults occur widely but tend to congregate in damp, lush vegetation where their foodplants are found, especially hedgerows, ditches, banks of rivers, lakes, and ponds, damp meadows and moorland, and woodland rides and edges. They can be seen from late April to early September and can have three broods.
1553  Orange Tip (Linnaeus)     Anthocharis cardamines
  Up until 1969 this species was regarded as rare in Calderdale, and throughout the seventies reports became more frequent and by the mid eighties it was becoming established as a resident, regular sightings along the valley bottom between Brighouse and Hebden Bridge.Can be seen as early as the last week in April flitting along the canal sides at Cromwell Bottom it can also be seen just about anywhere in May.
   Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) along road verges and ditches in Calderdale are a commonly used foodplant  and the conspicuose eggs can easily be found .

LYCAENIDAE

1555 Green hairstreak (Linnaeus)     Callophrys rubi
 Old records suggest that this species was present in the Widdop area from 1940 – 1969 and then a single record from Todmorden on 13th July 1995 after this record
 a big expansion from 1997 onwards partly due to a  natural spread and partly people looking in right habitat at the right time.I first saw 5 together at Norland Moor opposite the Moorcock Inn in small Birch trees, surrounded by billberry and heather on the 20th April 1997.
  This species was found to be very common in 2005 on the moors between Upper Gorle, Walshaw Dean Warley Moor and Ogden associating with bilberry, crowberry and heather. Also seen in recent years at Castle Car ,Norland Moor and Wainstalls
 Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) is used almost exclusively  as a foodplant on moorland  throughout Calderdale.
1557 Purple Hairstreak ((Linnaeus)    Neozephyrus quercus
  Well established in oak woodlands in Calderdale, it  has spread through the district in the last 10 years and was recorded for the first time in1990.It can be seen in flight above and aound the canopy of  oaks on warm still evenings in from late July to the first week in September  and  can easily be overlooked due to it favouring the higher canopy, but patience will reward good views as they often decend to lower levels. Colonies of Purple Hairstreak may be found in woodlands where sufficient oaks remain, Cromwell Bottom, Todmorden and Only House Wood Northowram are reliable places to see this species. I first saw this species on the 4th and 5th August 1997 at Tag pond ,Cromwell Bottom.
The Purple Hairstreak is restricted to oak trees including both the native species, Sessile Oak (Quercus petraea) and Pedunculate Oak (Q. robur)
 In groups of oaks, there is usually a favourite tree and isolated oaks (which may be survivors from when the site was more heavily wooded) may support colonies that have become self-contained on the same tree for many years.


1558 White - Letter Hairstreak  (Knoch)    Strymonidia w-albu
 First recorded in the Ryburn reservoir  area in 2004 and then not recorded until an
Adult was seen  in flight  at Sunnyvale on 10th July 2006,( C.V.Duke).   5 locations were found on which eggs had been laid on Elm in the Cromwell Bottom and Cromwell Wood areas. Late June -Early July. 1Adult at Only House Wood Northowram on the 19th July  2007 feeding on thistle heads (AC)and one adult visited a garden in Kebroyd 31st July 2009(I&T)

LYCAENINAE

1561  Small Copper   ((Linnaeus)    Lycaena phlaeas
 Generally common and widespread and  recorded in good numbers at Northowram in 2004 - 2007. Its food plants are Dock, Common and Sheep’s Sorrel and is normally seen on the wing in May/June and July /August occasionally a third brood is reared .
It occurs in a wide variety of habitats:  grassland, moorland, heathland, , woodland clearings/edges, and unimproved grassland. This species may be found also in small patches of land such as set-aside fields, roadside verges, railway embankments, allotments, churchyards, and waste ground, even in towns. Warm, dry situations are especially favoured.

POLYOMMATINAE

1574  Common Blue  (Rottemberg)  Polyommatus icarus
Very scarce before 1948 but is now well established at Cromwell Bottom.Its main foodplant is Birdsfoot trefoil(Lotus corniculatus) and has a  strong association with ants. Also recorded at Todmorden, Ringstone (1000ft) Copley and 
It occurs in a range of grassy places where its foodplants grow in sunny, sheltered situations on downland, coastal dunes and undercliffs, road verges, acid grassland, and woodland clearings. It is also found in waste ground, disused pits and quarries, golf courses, and urban habitats such as cemeteries.

1580  Holly Blue   ((Linnaeus)           Celastrina argiolus
 This species has never been recorded as anything more than scarce, before 1956 there were only 2 records in 1948. The small colony at Cromwell bottom was lost when the Ivy on Crowther Bridge was removed 2000 .In 1996 there was an influx into the area with records from  Triangle ,luddenden Foot, Well Head and Cromwell Bottom this coinsided with movments along the east coast at Spurn and Flambrough. Between 1996 and 2001 I recorded this species at Clover Hill in both flight periods May and August and regarded it as resident and have no reason to believe they are not still present.I have also recorded them at Northowram in 2002 and 2004,5,6 they are always seen at Holly in spring and at Ivy in summer
  The larvae feed predominantly on the flower buds, berries, and terminal leaves of Holly (Ilex aquifolium) in the spring generation, and Ivy (Hedera helix) in the summer generation. The spring generation can complete larval development entirely on leaves of male Holly bushes, although female bushes are preferred. They also use a wide variety of other wild and garden plants including Spindle (Euonymus europaeus), dogwoods (Cornus spp.), snowberries (Symphoricarpos spp.), gorses (Ulex spp.), and Bramble (Rubus fruticosus).
The Holly Blue occurs in a wide range of habitats, including hedgerows, field margins, woodland rides, gardens, and parks, including those in urban and suburban areas. In England, it often breeds in churchyards, many of which have Holly and Ivy.





NYMPHALIDAE

1590  Red Admiral            Vanessa Atalanta –
  This migrant can be seen throughout the area from May until October. 1 was at Ringstone Edge in early November 2005. The  larval food plant is the stinging nettle(Urtica dioica)and it is commonly seen around this species.I saw up to 30 at Cromwell Bottom feeding on Ivy in early September 2008 and alsp common thisle is often used as a source of nectar.
 This strong-flying migratory species may be seen throughout Britain and Ireland and in almost any habitat, from  town centres and the tops of the highest moors.
 In spring, each newly arrived male defends its chosen territory vigorously. These territories are situated initially close to the south coast, then further inland and typically on bushy hillsides, in corners of sheltered gardens, or in sunny clearings in woodland or parkland, and may be held for a week or more if conditions are suitable for flight. Females are usually seen near nettle beds except when nectaring.
 Later in the season, any flower-rich habitat is likely to attract the butterfly, including gardens where buddleias, stonecrops, and Michaelmas-daisies are all popular with Red Admirals. They also favour orchards where fruit is rotting on the ground. In Britain and Ireland the most important and widely available larval foodplant is Common Nettle (Urtica dioica). However Small Nettle (U. urens) and the related species, Pellitory-of-the-wall (Parietaria judaica) and Hop (Humulus lupulus) may also be used


1591 Painted Lady   ((Linnaeus)          Vanessa cardui
 This long distant migrant is common some years and totally absent the next. Most years I see about 2/3 individuals but in 1996  I saw 18 together on Buddleia at Daisy bank allotments. It was the best invasion year and was seen from June through to September in good numbers.2009 ,1989 and 1964 were also recorded as good years. This species has been recorded as breeding at Cromwell bottom.
A wide range of foodplants may be used, with thistles (Cirsium spp. and Carduus spp.) being preferred in Britain and Ireland. Mallows (Malva spp.), Common Nettle (Urtica dioica), Viper's-bugloss (Echium vulgare), and various cultivated plants also have been recorded as larval foodplants here.
Because it is a wide-ranging migrant, the Painted Lady may be seen in any habitat. Adults tend to congregate in open areas with plenty of thistles, which serve both as larval foodplants and nectar sources for adults.

1593  Small Tortoiseshell   ((Linnaeus)     Alias Utica   
 This is the most common member of this family seen from late March to October on stinging nettle . Double brooded from   June to August and occasionally a third generation in good summers. Cold springs and wet summers can make this species extremely scarce as in 1990 and 2000. On the 20th of January 2005 one was observed in a Northowram garden
Common Nettle (Urtica dioica) and Small Nettle (U. urens) are used as foodplants.
The adult butterflies can be seen in any habitat, from mountain summits above 1000m to city centres. There has been a decrease in numbers in recent years it
 has always fluctuated in numbers, but the cause of the most-recent decline is not yet known, although various theories have been proposed. One is the increasing presence of a particular parasitic fly, Sturmia bella, due to global warming - this species being common on the continent. The fly lays its eggs on leaves of the foodplant, close to where larvae are feeding. The tiny eggs are then eaten whole by the larvae and the grubs that emerge feed on the insides of their host, avoiding the vital organs. A fly grub eventually kills its host and emerges from either the fully-grown larva or pupa before itself pupating. Although the fly attacks related species, such as the Peacock and Red Admiral, it is believed that the lifecycle of the Small Tortoiseshell is better-synchronised with that of the fly and it is therefore more prone to parasitism

1594 Large Tortoiseshell  ((Linnaeus)       Nymphais polychlours
 Collinson makes no comment on this species but  there was a failed attempt to introduce it into the wild at  Warley on the  26th July 1984.(BC &JPG). Present records are thought to be  migrants ? 1 at Norton Tower in 1989 and Sowerby Bridge 1991. one at Cromwell Bottom on the 11th June 1992 and one at Well Head on the 26th July 1992  these coinsided with arrivels of Painted Lady ,Red Admiral and Clouded Yellow.?

1596 Camberwell Beauty  ((Linnaeus)      Nymphalis antiopa
1 at Southowram on the 25th August 1983
1 recorded at Mythom, Lower Shibden on the 8th August 1998 (Mrs Pateman)
1 observed near North Dean Woods on 27th July 2005(CS) coinsidentally the only other record in the country was on the same date in Sussex.

1597  Peacock    ((Linnaeus)       Inarchis io 
  In 1963 Wm Collinson wrote of this species ;- ‘Rarely recorded and then only odd specimens .It is not abundant in Yorkshire anywhere. Sometimes not seen in the parish for a dozen years’. It is a common sight now and  Peacock butterflies may be seen almost anywhere, searching for suitable breeding or nectaring sites. These are often open, sunny places in woodland where the preferred nectar plants are found, e.g. willows in spring and teasels, thistles, and Hemp-agrimony in late summer.
 Large nettle patches are normally chosen for egg laying and these too are often located in sunny positions in the shelter of woodland or hedgerows.

1598  Comma  ((Linnaeus)    Polygonia c-album
 In 1948 there had been only 3 records of this species and in 1990 there were only two records one in Rastrick 3rd August and 1 in Triangle on 16th October and was regarded as at the northern extent of its range. Throughout the 1990’s this species has spread all over Calderdale and is seen regularly from as early as March and can still be seen in October.
  The most widely used foodplant is Common Nettle (Urtica dioica). Other species used include Hop (Humulus lupulus), elms (Ulmus spp.), currants (Ribes spp.), and willows (Salix spp.).
 Open woodland and wood edges are the main habitats for both breeding and hibernation. Pre-hibernation individuals range more widely in search of nectar and rotting fruit, and are seen regularly in gardens and many other habitats.

 
 
 
ARGYNNINAE

1600 Small Pearl – bordered Fritillary    (Denis & Schiffermüller)   Boloria selene
 1 at Triangle 10th July 1983(F.Murgatroyd)

1907 Dark  Green Fritillary Argynnis paphia(
 Copley, 2 in 1997, 2 at Beacon Hill in 1985 and a flight worn female at Withens Clough 10th July  2010 (per BC).
1 male at Only House wood Northowram 26th July 2010(AC)

Fritillary Historical Footnote .
 There are some very old records of Fritillary species including the late Herbert Spencer insisted that Silver washed Fritillary was present at Elland park Wood(this record was never accepted by the YNU).In 1863 Samuel  Gibson recorded  2 Marsh Fritillary in the Hebden Valley .

SATYRIDAE

1614  Speckled Wood  ((Linnaeus)      Pararge aegeria 
  There are only a few records prior to 1996. It now seems to have spread full length of the districtand and can be described as our commonest butterfly it can be  seen regularly at Cromwell bottom Todmorden, Northowram ,Hebden Bridge and Ripponden etc.One was sat on a lollipop lady on the main road in Northowram on the morning of the 10th August 2006 and one was observed flying down the main road at King Cross in June 2008.

 1615 Wall Brown   ((Linnaeus)            Lasiommata megera  -
  Prior to 1963 only a handful of records for this species since this time it has spread throughout the area.It is now considered to be widespread and is double brooded from  May -  September the second brood is often more noticeable.15 adults at Erringden Moor on 19th July 2007

1620  Marbled White  ((Linnaeus)   Melanargia galathea
1 seen at Crow nest quarry on 27th June 2009( BH )Bruce wrote this short passage…
We were actually searching for bee orchid and were seeing the odd speckled wood.
Photos were being taken of bee orchid and I went off chasing a Whitehroat. I saw the
pale underside view of a butterfly halfway up a grass stem (much paler than S Wood)
and about the same size about 8 foot away. It opened its wings and the black and white of the upper side was very striking. It flew and landed a bit further away, the pale underside contrasting with the strongly marked upper. I called for assistance but by the time Steve, Mike and the rest arrived it had flown off through trees and was lost to sight.
At the time I had no idea what it was and did not think much more about it.
When I returned home and looked it up I instantly recognised it as Marbled White.
I looked at the prefered habitat and discovered that Crow Nest quarry is an ideal
location - lime around - for this species along with a warm easterly wind that day Little did I know that it was probably the first Calderdale record. Unfortunately I did not get a photo!!! 

1625  Gatekeeper  ((Linnaeus)                      Pyronia tithonus
According to Sutton and Beaumont(1989)since 1973 there has bee a large range expansion for this species and can be found as far west as Halifax. The local records are a bit more sporadic but it seems to be increasing with better coverage of our area.
2 records in 1983(HSS 2000 report)
1 at Prospect street 15th July,1 male 23rd July and 2 females 8th August at Clifton 2006 and 1 male atOxford road ,Well Head 2006
A small colony at Clifton since the early 1990’s with records of male and female
 being present on the 26th July – 22nd August 1997 and 1 at Littlemoor park Queensbury 22nd August 1997
Jill Lucas  recorded this species much earlier  in 1999/2000.
1 adult at Sunnyside, Todmorden. on the 08th  and 10th  Jul 2005 Joan Marshall
Sunny Vale lake in a  field at north end of lake and wood on the 14  Jul 2006 (C.V.Duke)
Seen and photographed on Brookfoot Loop on 5th July 2006 by Paul Talbot.
In 2007 there  were 25 on the 19th  raising to 30 on the  28th   July then slowly declining to 8 on the 10th August and finally 1 on the 25th August at only House Wood Northowram.
From  2008 - 2010 this species continued its colonisation of the eastern area with 100+ sightings from Cromwell Bottom,Northowram,Sunny Vale and Shibden.

1626  Meadow Brown  ((Linnaeus)         Maniola jurtina 
 The Meadow Brown is one of our commonest and most widespread butterflies, and a familiar site throughout the summer months across Calderdale It is not uncommon  to see 100 + on a summers day at Northowram / Cromwell Bottom  and anywhere there is uncultivated land in the vallys and lower hillsides.

1627 Small Heath  ((Linnaeus)                  Coenonympha pamphilus
  Common on suitable grassland from a wide range of areas ,Ogden Clough, Cromwell Bottom Todmorden, Widdop, Withens Clough and Stoodley pike.Northowram and Shibden valley.

1629 Ringlet   ((Linnaeus)          Aphantopus hyperantus
 The first records for Calderdale was on the 8th  July 2006 at Crow Nest Quarry, Lightcliffe, 4 males and two females seen in flight. (C.P.Duke, C.V.Duke).
Single male photographed at Sunnyvale on 10th  July 2006 (C. V. Duke.)
On the 19th July 2007 ,2 were briefly observed at Only House Wood Northowram then on the 24th 1 was caught and positively identified as this species, 3 adults were observed around bramble bushes at this site on the 27th July 2007.(AC).
1 at Tag Meadow,Cromwell Bottom on the 1st July 2008 was photographed and identified as a female.(AC)In 2008 the species was recorded from many sites in the eastern area of Calderdale and at least 60+ individuals were recorded.(CS, AC &CSut)

Visible – Migration of Butterflies at Thotnton Moor Bradford
25th –31st May 2009 (DB,HC)
We all know that some species of butterfly migrate long distances and in some years we get massive invasions of species. In the spring of 2009 David Barker noticed that whislt watching the spring migration of birds that butterflies were also migrating in large numbers. The art of vis- mig in the pennines is to find an area which channels large numbers of  migrating species so that they can be observed closely. Dave counted massive numbers of Painted ladys and in with these were many other species including Red Admiral , Dingy and Grizzled Skippers.